VLSI(VERY LARGE SCALE

 INTEGRATION) SEMINAR TOPICS 

NANO-RAM
Nano-RAM is a proprietary computer memory technology from the company Nantero. It is a type of nonvolatile random access memory based on the mechanical position of carbon nanotubes deposited on a chip-like substrate. In theory, the small size of the nanotubes allows for very high density memories. Nantero also refers to it as NRAM.

TCL - MODULARIZATION - SOURCE
The source command will load a file and execute it. This allows a program to be broken up into multiple files, with each file defining procedures and variables for a particular area of functionality. For instance, you might have a file called database.tcl that contains all the procedures for dealing with a database, or a file called gui.tcl that handles creating a graphical user interface with Tk. The main script can then simply include each file using the sourcecommand. More powerful techniques for program modularization are discussed in the next lesson on packages.This command can be used to:
separate a program into multiple files,make a library file that contains all the procs for a particular set of functions,configure programs and load data files.

Pentacene-Based Low-Leakage Memory Transistor with Dielectric/Electrolytic/Dielectric Polymer Layers
This experiment found an interesting NVM effect, not based on ferroelectric but rather on electrolytic behavior of the inserted PVDF/TrFE layer, with which our pentacene-TFT showed good field mobility and decent retention time without serious gate leakage but required long pulse periods for program write and erase.
ORGANIC LED
OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) is a flat light emitting technology, made by placing a series of organic thin films between two conductors. When electrical current is applied, a bright light is emitted. OLEDs can be used to make displays and lighting. Because OLEDs emit light they do not require a backlight and so are thinner and more efficient than LCD displays(which do require a white backlight).

M-RAM
MRAM (Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory) uses electron spin to store data. Memory cells are integrated on an integrated circuit chip, and the function of the resulting device is like a semiconductor static RAM (SRAM) chip, with potentially higher density and the added feature that the data are nonvolatile, that is data are retained with power off.

SINGLE ELECTRON TUNNELING TECHNOLOGY
Single electron tunneling transistors have some properties which make them attractive for neural networks, among which their small size, low power consumption and potentially high speed.Simulations have been performed on some small circuits of SET transistors that exhibit functional properties similar to those required for neural networks.
EXTREME ULTRA VIOLET LITHOGRAPHY
Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is an advanced technology for making microprocessors a hundred times more powerful than those made today. It works by burning intense beams of ultraviolet light that are reflected from a circuit design pattern into a silicon wafer. EUVL is similar to optical lithography in which light is refracted through camera lenses onto the wafer. However, extreme ultraviolet light, operating at a different wavelength , has different properties and must be reflected from mirrors rather than refracted through lenses. The challenge is to build mirrors perfect enough to reflect the light with sufficient precision.

MEMS 
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is the technology of very small devices that merges at the nano-scale into nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nanotechnology
PHOTONIC INTEGRATION OF HYBRID SILICON
The hybrid silicon bonding and process technology are fully compatible with CMOS-processed wafers because high-temperature steps and contamination are avoided. Full wafer bonding is possible, allowing for low-cost and large-volume device fabrication.High-speed optical interconnect can be realized on-chip using QW intermixing technology.


MULTI THRESHOLD CMOS
Multi-threshold CMOS (MTCMOS) is a variation of CMOS chip technology which has transistors with multiple threshold voltages (Vth) in order to optimize delay or power. The Vth of a MOSFET is the gate voltage where an inversion layer forms at the interface between the insulating layer (oxide) and the substrate (body) of the transistor. Low Vth devices switch faster, and are therefore useful on critical delay paths to minimize clock periods. The penalty is that low Vth devices have substantially higher static leakage power. High Vth devices are used on non-critical paths to reduce static leakage power without incurring a delay penalty. Typical high Vth devices reduce static leakage by 10 times compared with low Vth devices.  

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