(Electronics Engineering,Electronics & Communication Engineering,Communication Engineering)

What is meant by D-FF?

D-flip flop stands for Delay flip-flop, it delays input by one clock pulse

What is the basic difference between Latches and Flip flops?

Latches are monostable and flip-flops are bistable

What is a multiplexer?

It is used to multiplex data from different sources normally used in TDM

How can you convert an JK Flip-flop to a D Flip-flop?

Connect J to D and K to not(D)

What is Race-around problem? How can you rectify it?

Race around condition occurs in a JK flip-flop when both the inputs are set to '1', it can be rectified using edge-triggered flip-flop or using master-slave flip-flops

What do you mean by zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown?

zener breakdown takes place when very high voltage is applied to the diode this results in very high reverse current, as voltage is further increased minority carriers gain further momentum and strike atoms releases more carriers, which results in further increase in temp. It becomes vicious cycle and leads to avalanche breakdown or on other words "thermal runaway".

What is sampling theorem?

sampling frequency should be atleast twice the maximum freq present in the signal

What is impulse response?

response given by a digital system when impulse signal is applied to it. Used to find out stability of system

What do you mean by half-duplex and full-duplex communication? Explain briefly.

half-duplex: either sender or receiver can use the channel at one time eg walky-talky and full-duplex: sender or receiver or both can use the channel at one time eg telephone)

For asynchronous transmission, is it necessary to supply some synchronizing pulses additionally or to supply or to supply start and stop bit?

For asyn tx it is necessary to use start and stop bits as no common clock is there

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