Electronics Seminar Reports


Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules
Bulk silicon is separated into multiple categories according to crystallinity and crystal size in the resulting ingot, ribbon, or wafer.monocrystalline silicon (c-Si): often made using the Czochralski process. Single-crystal wafer cells tend to be expensive, and because they are cut from cylindrical ingots, do not completely cover a square solar cell module without a substantial waste of refined silicon. Hence most c-Si panels have uncovered gaps at the four corners of the cells. polycrystalline silicon, or multicrystalline silicon, (poly-Si or mc-Si): made from cast square ingots — large blocks of molten silicon carefully cooled and solidified. Poly-Si cells are less expensive to produce than single crystal silicon cells, but are less efficient. United States Department of Energy data show that there were a higher number of polycrystalline sales than monocrystalline silicon sales.
ribbon silicon is a type of polycrystalline silicon: it is formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon and results in a polycrystalline structure. These cells have lower efficiencies than poly-Si, but save on production costs due to a great reduction in silicon waste, as this approach does not require sawing from ingots.mono-like-multi silicon: Developed in the 2000s and introduced commercially around 2009, mono-like-multi, or cast-mono, uses existing polycrystalline casting chambers with small "seeds" of mono material. The result is a bulk mono-like material with poly around the outsides. When sawn apart for processing, the inner sections are high-efficiency mono-like cells (but square instead of "clipped"), while the outer edges are sold off as conventional poly. The result is line that produces mono-like cells at poly-like prices.



Transparent LCD displays
The latest innovation in liquid crystal displays (LCDs) introduces an incredible Transparent LCD Screen. Now, you'll not only be looking at an LCD, you'll be seeing through it and into the area surrounding whatever goodies appear to be 'housed' inside it! Touch technology can also be added by using an Interactive Touch Foil or IR Touch Frame.The LCD utilises ambient light, with no internal back lighting requirement. For this reason, it is more energy efficient, cost effective and reliable than other displays of similar size.Nikon filed a patent in Japan for a semi-transparent, see-through, rotating LCD screen. The idea behind this patent is to overlay the camera's live view on a semi-transparent LCD display. This will allow a better tracking of fast moving objects and the photographer will be able to observe the entire scene beyond what is being shown in live view (similar to a rangefinder where you can see outside the frame lines). Nikon is basically trying to create a LCD screen version of the Fuji X100 hybrid viewfinder where optical and electronic display are combined into one.Samsung Electronics also expanding the transparent display market with production of a 46-inch transparent LCD panel


Eye gaze systems 
The Eyegaze System is a communication and control system for people with complex physical disabilities. You run the system with your eyes. By looking at control keys displayed on a screen, a person can synthesize speech, control his environment (lights, appliances, etc.), type, operate a telephone, run computer software, operate a computer mouse, and access the Internet and e-mail. Eyegaze Systems are being used to write books, attend school and enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities all over the world.This system is mainly developed for those who lack the use of their hands or voice. Only requirements to operate the Eyegaze are control of at least one eye with good vision & ability to keep head fairly still. Eyegaze Systems are in use around the world. Its users are adults and children with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, brain injuries, ALS, multiple sclerosis, brainstem strokes, muscular dystrophy, and Werdnig Hoffman syndrome. Eyegaze Systems are being used in homes, offices, schools, hospitals, and long term care facilities. By looking at control keys displayed on a screen, a person can synthesize speech, control his environment (lights, appliances, etc.), type, operate a telephone, run computer software, operate a computer mouse, and access the Internet and e-mail. Eyegaze Systems are being used to write books, attend school and enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities all over the world.
vlsi chip and sdr
This is the world of VLSI . Presently all most all the people are using technology in various forms like mobiles, i-pods, i-phones etc., Every one enjoys technology but only a few know about VLSI design in world design and its working. Coming to VLSI it is the process of creating integrated circuits by combing 1000`s of transistor based circuits in to a single chip. It began 1970`s when complex semi conductors and communication technologies were being developed, But now it has become key to many sophisticated electronic devices. As the subject is a big ocean we laid our emphasis on VLSI chip coupled with SDR technology used in mobiles. VLSI technology makes the mobile affordable and SDR technology make its flexible. Coming to the role of soft ware define radio abbreviated as SDR, it helps one to access different net works like CDMA, GSM, WILL etc. Basically SDR is radio communication system which can potentially tune to any frequency band and received any modulation across a large frequency spectrum by means of little hard ware as possible and process it signals through soft ware.

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