seminar topics on ece

Wireless Communication Bluetooth Technology
Bluetooth technology is a short range wireless protocol which designed to create a networks. The Bluetooth was invented by in 1994. It operates in industrial,scientific and medical(ISM) band of electromagnetic spectrum.The major advantages of Bluetooth are:• Low cost • Low complexity(for user)• Low power consumption• Easy synchronization.The Bluetooth applications are based on different protocols.the different protocols are as follows:OBEX (object exchange protocol):• Sending and receiving files.• Remotely browsing and accessing files RFCOMM:• Serial port emulation• Data stream L2CAP:• Segments and reassembles data packets between higher level protocols and HCI• Multiplexes data from higher level protocols• A fundamental protocol for accessing most Bluetooth applications.The main aim of Bluetooth technology is to provide low cost wireless communication and provide a better technology for the people.

Smart Antenna Systems
As the growing demand for mobile communications is constantly increasing, the need for better coverage, improved capacity and higher transmission quality rises. Thus, a more efficient use of the radio spectrum is required. smart antenna systems are capable of efficiently utilizing the radio spectrum and thus for an effective solution to the present wireless systems problems while achieving reliable and high speed, high-data-rate transmission. In, fact smart antenna systems comprise several critical areas such as individual antenna array design, signal processing algorithms, space time processing, and network performance.Antennas Radio antennas couple electromagnetic energy from one medium (space) to another (e.g., wire, coaxial cable, or waveguide). Physical designs can vary greatly.Omnidirectional Antennas Since the early days of wireless communications, there has been the simple dipole antenna, which radiates and receives equally well in all directions. To find its users, this single-element design broadcasts omnidirectionally in a pattern resembling ripples radiating outward in a pool of water. While adequate for simple RF environments where no specific knowledge of the users' whereabouts is available, this unfocused approach scatters signals, reaching desired users with only a small percentage of the overall energy sent out into the environment.

RFID based shopping trolley
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of an object applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. Radio-frequency identification comprises interrogators (also known as readers), and tags (also known as labels). Most RFID tags contain at least two parts. One is an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating a radio-frequency (RF) signal, and other specialized functions. The second is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. There are generally three types of RFID tags: active RFID tags, which contain a battery and can transmit signals autonomously, passive RFID tags, which have no battery and require an external source to provoke signal transmission, and battery assisted passive (BAP) which require an external source to wake up but have significant higher forward link capability providing great read range. 

Wireless charging of Mobile phones using Micro Waves
With mobile phones becoming a basic part of life, the recharging of mobile phone batteries has always been a problem . The mobile phones vary in their talk time and battery stand by according to their manufacturer and batteries. All these phones irrespective of their manufacturer and batteries have to be put to recharge after the battery has drained out. The main objective of their manufacturer and battery make. In this paper a new proposal has been made so as to make the recharging of the mobile phones is done automatically as you talk in your mobile phone! This is done by use of microwaves. The microwave signal is transmitted from the transmitter along with the message signal using special kind of antennas called slotted wave guide antenna at a frequency is 2.45GHz. There are minimal additions, which have to be made in the mobile handsets, which are the addition of a sensor, a “rectenna” and a filter. With the above setup, the need for separate chargers for mobile phones is eliminated and makes charging universal . Thus the more you talk, the mobile phones is eliminated and makes charging universal. Thus the more you talk, the more is your mobile phone charged! With this proposal the manufacturers would be able to remove the talk time and battery stand by from their phone specificationStudies on various microwave power rectifier configurations show that a bridge
configuration is better than a single diode one. But the dimensions and the cost of that
kind of solution do not meet our objective. 

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